This study investigates the effects of gender and year in program on the performance and mathematical selfefficacy beliefs of 145 pre-service mathematics teachers in Turkey. One of the main purposes of this study investigate how duration in a teacher education program influenced the performance and mathematical selfefficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers. In addition, gender differences between male and female pre-service mathematics teachers, depending upon year in program, are examined. Results revealed that there were significant statistical effects of gender and year in program on both pre-service teachers’ performance and selfefficacy scores. Female pre-service teachers scored significantly higher than males on performance, but significant difference was detected between female and male pre-service teachers with respect to mathematics self-efficacy scores. Senior pre-service teachers had the highest scores compared to other students in program on bother performance and mathematics self-efficacy scores. Although the present study is small, results tentatively suggest a further investigation of the relationship between performance and self-efficacy beliefs might be fruitful. Studying how mathematical self-efficacy develops across school years and what factors facilitate its development could yield valuable implications for the field of mathematic education.