Vol. 31 No. 1 (2023)

Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers’ Opportunities to Learn Reasoning and Proof in Algebra

Jia He
Augusta University
Tuyin An

Published 2023-07-27


  • reasoning and proof,
  • secondary mathematics teacher education,
  • opportunity to learn


This study examined opportunities provided for preservice secondary mathematics teachers (PSMTs) to learn reasoning and proof in algebra from the perspective of college instructors. We analyzed interview transcripts of 15 course instructors recruited from three teacher education programs in the United States. We examined the reported opportunities provided for PSMTs to engage in proving- related activities, including making conjectures, investigating conjectures, developing arguments, evaluating arguments, and disproving by using counterexamples. We also analyzed instructional strategies reported by the instructors. We found the inconsistency between instructors’ perceptions of the importance of reasoning and proof in algebra and instructor-reported opportunities to learn. Findings also indicated that developing arguments was reported the most frequently. In addition, instructors reported more pedagogy- focused general teaching strategies than proof-specific teaching strategies.